The Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan – covers geographically the Bucharest – Ilfov region, which has a total area of 1,821 km², out of which 13.1% represents the administrative territory of the Municipality of Bucharest, and 86.9% represents the administrative territory of the Ilfov County.
Bucharest is the capital of the country and the largest city in Romania.
In January 2019 the population of the region was of 2,568,226 inhabitants and was distributed inversely proportional to the size of the two administrative entities.
The municipality of Bucharest is the largest urban agglomeration in Romania, its population being of 2,131,034 inhabitants, representing 82.98% of the population of the region, over 17% of the urban population of the country, respectively about 9.61% of the total population of Romania. The municipality of Bucharest is divided into 6 districts and 27 main neighborhoods.
The Ilfov County includes 40 territorial-administrative units:
The population of the Ilfov County, counting 437,192 inhabitants, represents only 17.02% of the total of the region. It is the county with the largest demographic change in the last decade, registering a population growth of 39.98% in the period 2009-2019.
Institutions responsible for implementing the measures/projects:
The policies and measures defined in a Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan should be addressed to all ways and types of transport throughout the urban agglomeration, including public and private, passenger and cargo, motorized and non-motorized, moving or stopped transport.
It builds on and extends the existing plans.
The need to carry out urban mobility plans is provided in article 46 of the Law No. 350 of July 6th, 2001 (as subsequently amended and supplemented), on spatial planning and urban planning, where it is specified that a General Urban Plan (GUP) must include:
Annex 2 to the Law no. 350 defines an urban mobility plan as a tool for territorial strategic planning that correlates the spatial development of the localities in the suburban areas/metropolitan areas, the mobility and transport of people, goods and cargo. This reflects the definition presented in the EU guidance document.
A Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan aims to create a sustainable urban transport system by:
In Bucharest – Ilfov there are more than 6 million journeys daily and about half of the number of journeys are made by car.
The average number of journeys per person per day is 2.7 much lower than other European capitals, which have 3-4 journeys per day per person, which suggests a reduced mobility. Mobility is more reduced in Ilfov and in the Bucharest neighborhoods with social problems.
The number of cars in Bucharest (600/1000 inhabitants) and Ilfov (550/1000 inhabitants) is much higher than the EU average; there is also a large number of cars that are not in good working condition and that are parked on public property.
Thus, Bucharest is the most congested city in Europe and the particulate matter pollution exceeds the maximum limit allowed by the law.
After a programming period (2007-2013) in which Romania focused through the Operational Programs, especially on investments in infrastructure, often disparate or with targeted impact, the Partnership Agreement for 2014-2020 offers new opportunities and the possibility to approach the challenges related to mobility in an integrated way, through the new concept of the Urban Mobility Plans (SUMP) which place a special emphasis on involving citizens and stakeholders, on coordinating sectoral policies (transport, land use, environment, economy, social policy, health, safety, energy, etc.), of the administrative levels and of the neighbouring authorities.
Basically, a SUMP is an operational document that facilitates the transition of cities from a traditional approach, that of favouring cars, to: “An interdisciplinary, transversal, open and transparent approach”.
Following the integrated approach supported by the European Commission, the elaboration of the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMP) is necessary in order to finance the urban transport projects, within the Regional Operational Program 2014-2020 and the Large Infrastructure Operational Program 2014-2020.
SUMP Bucuresti-Ilfov was created for a budget of about 7 billion EUR, out of which about 50% will be used for the projects carried out by the local authorities (Bucharest and Ilfov) and 50% will be used for investments in the development of the subway network under the Ministry of Transport.
The budget was made taking into account the possibilities for investment of the local authorities for the period until 2030.
The financing will also come partly from European funds (the LIOP programs – Large Infrastructure Operational Program – for the subway and the ROP – Regional Operational Program – for the local authorities), the plan also representing a conditionality for the financing of the subway projects, the urban development projects or for the completion of the research project ELI from Magurele (ensuring connectivity/transport).